Additional capacity can be made available in many cases by increasing equipment utilization rates rather than by adding units of equipment. 2. This approach should delineate basic principles that are demonstrably effective and universally applicable. Equipment design employs new approaches that use broader data bases. Factors Affecting Interpretation of Reliability Coefficients Leslie Russek, PT, PhD, OCS1 I t is now well understood that to make effective decisions based on patient data physical thera-pists need to know the psychometric properties of the clinical measurements they use.5 What These definitions are important when comparing data for different firms in an industry. Results of these performance comparisons are published in the trade press. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. In the area of human–machine interface, research is needed to delineate the guidelines and practices needed for establishing this important junction. Manufacturing engineering and software training programs are badly needed. The implementation stage calls for (1) ensuring early successes and hands-on experience by focusing initial efforts on equipment that offers the most potential for improvement, (2) establishing an autonomous maintenance program for operators, (3) creating a system of planned maintenance that anticipates an increase in work load, (4) improving operating and maintenance skills through training, and (5) developing a prototype equipment management program. In addition, practices that will promote effective implementation and continuous improvement of ERM must be developed. The suppliers, largely isolated, are in most cases not likely to commit resources to providing a capability that many U.S. manufacturers, because they have not yet understood its value, have not demanded. Problems have been diagnosed in time for corrective action, greatly minimizing damage to turbines. Reliability was first practiced in the early start-up days for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) when Robert Lusser, working with Dr. Wernher von Braun's rocketry program, developed what is known as \"Lusser's Law\" . Academic emphasis on graduating career or professional engineers. Further, a logical model of machine failure that can relate different kinds of failures, mean times between them, and their causes, is needed. To ensure availability, an appropriate level of reliability and/or redundancy is prescribed and the most appropriate maintenance program (reactive, preventive, predictive/condition-based, reliability-centered) given. Act on the recommendations and opportunities identified. Network. Factors that affect the performance of networks. Similar results are being achieved in old as well as new factories throughout Japan. and vertically to supervisory controllers above or slaves below. Development of standards for design and test, for measuring and evaluating ERM, and for operator–equipment interfaces, would be a great facilitator in each of the areas discussed above. Unplanned downtime results into undesirable indirect cost of maintenance due to losses in production and the idleness of other machines in the production system. FIGURE 3-6 An enlightened approach to reducing equipment life cycle costs: Increase capital investment at the concept and design stages. In actual, day-to-day production, manufacturing engineers generally monitor two basic measures of equipment or process performance, scheduled and actual. Most process engineers employ a deterministic safety factor approach that reflects a reasonable level of unavoidable loss of output. The unavailability of internship programs is a serious deficit in U.S. manufacturing. Designers have access to comprehensive data from the equipment itself, as well as a wealth of information about the needs and performance of the installed base of industrial users. A few basic definitions are used in this chapter. The ideal manufacturing environment of the future has no maintenance organization and every piece of equipment is expected to be available 100 percent of the time. Biological activity-One of the endproducts of humidity/deposition of damp layer is growth of fungi. Source: Intel Corporation, 1989. floor; it begins in the office with the design of product, process, and equipment. Much of the controller software was written with the assumption that all equipment works properly when, in fact, complicated and unpredictable failure modes, unanticipated by the system and equipment designers, are becoming increasingly apparent. ��c�+�&Ҟ�p2�M���q�xo�idp"�YƤmya�C�D�+mq�x���[�!K�%Ȍ�T3F����N�����|9A��?ݻ5:�� �i�#��2bJ�W̼�q��x�+�sw�9&� The on-line system included hardware, software, and diagnostic engineering services. Veteran engineers in one Japanese company with fewer than 50 employees, for example, developed all of the firm's equipment, tools, and dies. 57-63). Across each industry is a reli-. Identification of operational changes to enhance ERM. U.S. industry is not without examples of emphasis on ERM. The Nishio factory is not an isolated showcase. Source: VLSI Research Inc. impact of these integrated systems on capital investment alone is significant (forgetting impact on quality, cost, and lead time). 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